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文化会聚主义与多元文化认同

作 者: 吴莹(著)

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所属集刊: 中国社会心理学评论 第九辑 在线日期: 2016-09-18
页  数: 37页 阅  读:
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摘 要

在全球化及多民族国家的语境中,多重身份及多元文化认同是人们的生活常态,而多重身份如何融合并存是人们共同关注的话题。本文在文化会聚心理学视角下提出,多元文化认同的形成具有历史性,个人对多元文化认同管理又具有强烈的情境性,因此考察宏观的文化混搭、共生形态对多元文化认同管理显得非常重要。本文提出,不同文化领域的混搭构建出不同的认同形态:物质性领域的文化混搭情境中出现融合性认同表达;象征性和神圣性领域的文化混搭情境中出现排斥性认同表达,单一性亚群体认同凸显;文化依恋又是亚群体认同情感功能的体现。分析世界各国的文化政策可发现,存在三种改善认同的策略:去类别化认同与同化政策、亚类别化认同与多元文化主义政策、再类别化与多元一体的国家民族身份建构策略。最后,多民族国家的制度和局势变幻,及全球化背景下移民的社会流动是改变人们身份认同的现实环境。

Abstract

With rapid globalization and in the context of a multiethnic country,many people have multiple identities. Negotiation and management of multicultural identities is a topic that has drawn a lot of research attention. From the polycultural psychology perspective,cultural identities are historically constructed based on personal and learned histories of intercultural interactions,and the process of multicultural identities management is contextual and dynamic. I argue that the domain in which mixing of cultures happens will affect the how people manage multiple identities:Multicultural identity integration tend to prosper when culture mixing takes place in the material domain;and exclusive identity representation and subgroup identification tend to occur when culture mixing takes place in symbolic and scared domains,particularly for people with strong emotional attachment to subgroup identities. Next,I review three strategies for managing multicultural identities in social contexts:De-categorization and assimilation;sub-categorization and multiculturalism;and Re-categorization and pluralistic integration. Finally,I discuss from the historical perspective the implications of institutional and social change,as well as global migration for the management of multicultural identities.

作者

吴莹

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